See the List Search Engine List
- This is only a partial list.
- This does not list the thousands of niche, national, regional and local directories of that time.
Almost all these are gone. If you want a glimpse at what web search was like in 2001 click the link. A list from 1999 would be even better and more vibrant. A lot of these search engines had no hope of surviving in 2001, but at least most of them had their own index. Now we are down to 2: Google and poor second Bing, plus a couple of smaller engines with their own indexes. And you don’t call that a monopoly? You don’t call that a silo, and a dangerous one at that?
Look at that list – at least they were trying.